Bosnia and Herzegovina
More than 20 years after the war (1991-95), Bosnia i Herzegovina (BiH) is still facing severe political and societal challenges in its post-conflict development. Based on the Dayton Agreement (Dejtonski Mirovni Sporazum), which has ended the war, Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats became “constitutive people” in the Bosnia and Herzegovinian state. Abundant administrative and political structures as well as complex rules defining political representation based on ethnic affiliation represent major consequences.
Furthermore, politics – political discourses as well as political parties – are highly ethnicised. For the appointment of administrative, political and often professional functions, ethnic affiliation is frequently a decisive criteria. Almost any political topic is discussed in reference to alleged Bosniak, Serb and Croats interest: politicians look at and argue about national holidays, technicalities of reform processes necessary to access the EU or technicalities to access major development funds in this way.
Insensitive and uncompromising attitudes of leading politicians, who by putting in front alleged national interest, block necessary constitutional reforms and the fulfilment of basic civil rights. Amongst others, neither Sejdić-Finci-rule of the European Court for Human Rights nor local elections in Mostar have yet been implemented. Socio-economic development is also slowed down and partly blocked by ethnicised politics that result in BiH being left out of many international economic, financial and other initiatives. The most recent example has been BiH failing to join the Transport Community of the EU as the only Western Balkan country.
Reconciliation is particularly challenged by contradictory narratives about war and pre-war events. War criminals, even those convicted in front of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), are seen to be heroes by Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats for defending “their people” during the war. Separated curricula and schools for Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats in many regions are decisively contributing to maintaining mutually exclusive and contradictory historical records. In many places, civil society organisations, sports and music clubs, bars and restaurants are almost exclusively providing services for one of the three groups. Media, i.e. radio, newspapers and television channels, are known to be Bosniak, Serb or Croatian.
In the southern part of Herzegovina, where CSSP is mainly working at the moment, political struggles and societal organisation are heavily defined by either being Bosniak or being Croat. Many Croats see the area as a potential third (Croatian) entity and Mostar as its potential centre. Many Bosniaks, though, want Mostar and the region to stay part of the Bosnian Federation. Flags, religious symbols and culture easily recognisable as Croatian, Bosniak or Bosnian are used to claim the territory. Many villages are referred to as Bosniak, Croat or mixed villages. Daily life is mostly organised along ethnic lines. In Mostar, a de-facto divided city, public transport, communal services and health systems are foremost used by either Croats or Bosniaks, who in great parts are living on different sides of the city.
Since 2007, CSSP has been supporting and promoting political dialogue among political and social stakeholders across ethnic and political lines. CSSP aims at transforming ethnicised political conflicts and reducing the influence of nationalist ideology in selected municipalities and regions. Important objectives of CSSP’s work are reinforcing democratic standards in society and within political parties as well as enhancing supra-ethnic political representation. Therefore, CSSP promotes a culture of negotiation and creative problem-solving amongst selected key actors. Trust building as well as establishing and deepening of relationship are considered to be important steps for and achievements of dialogue and mediation activities.
CSSP implements activities in three different municipalities located in South Herzegovina. In Mostar, CSSP is supporting different civil society organisation in their efforts to articulate and represent publicly interests of concern for all citizens living in the divided city. Through trainings in negotiation and advocacy, civil society actors get strengthened in their capacities of supra-ethnic interest representation. In Čaplijna, CSSP is stimulating communication and cooperation at the municipality level by organising and facilitating roundtables, during which representatives from different levels of local bodies elaborated joint guidelines to improve communication and cooperation through concrete measures. In Stolac, inter-ethnic workshops and activities are conducted with the aim of building trust and establishing working relationships among NGOs and between NGOs and municipality.
CSSP has a long history and connection with the peace process in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its methodological foundations and initial commitment stem from the work of Prof. Dr. Christian Schwarz-Schilling as International Mediator from 1996 to 2004 (www.international-mediator.de).
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